e-book Second Russian Reader: Bilingual for Speakers of English (Graded Russian Readers Book 4)

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View Profile. Daniel M. About Annika My first tutoring experience took place in first grade when I was asked to assist a newly arrived Vietnamese girl with her English. I myself had learned English when I first came to the United States at three years of age and could relate well to some of the issues the newcomer was facing. A true global nomad, I have lived in Germany, the U. Starting with English and German, and eventually Spanish, French and Russian, I have been instructing students since in various countries of a variety of ages in a multitude of informal and formal settings.

After one year of working in a public school setting, I began teaching privately and on a freelance basis for a number of private companies and language schools, and the government. Annika O. Chicago, IL. About Yulia Hello everyone! I am a professional percussionist, active performer and enthusiastic educator. I have been teaching since and is currently available to teach private lessons. I teach a variety of disciplines : Percussion, Drum Set, Keyboard percussion Marimba, xylophone, vibraphone , Music theory and Ear Training as well as Russian language.

My classes are always very productive and my students learn the skills needed to succeed in their studies. I look forward to helping my new students achieve their goals. Yulia B. Chicago, IL Lincoln, NE. I'm a Russian and German teacher. German I specialize in teaching German at the High School level. I then found work in a private school and instructed over one hundred students.

I have since continued tutoring individually specializing with online lessons. I believe this helps students gain fluency an d lose their fear of making mistakes while speaking. No one can be perfect in a month but the student needs to be comfortable enough with grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation so that they can communicate in German and improve through conversation and dialog. My youngest students were 6 years old and I have also taught older students.

I enjoy working with children and am fascinated by how quickly young students can learn and grasp languages.

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Especially when learning is incorporated in a game where a student can passively learn to use new vocabulary as a tool to win a game among others. I am very grateful for all my students and the wide variety of experiences that I have had interacting with them. Russian I am an experienced language teacher. My experience is teaching German as a second or third language to Russian and Romanian speakers, but since I am a native Russian speaker I can use what I have learned teaching German to teach Russian.

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My teaching philosophy is to learn through practice. Everyone makes mistakes and part of learning a new language is overcoming the fear of making mistakes and being willing to work through errors to convey an idea or thought. People learn a language best when they use it as a tool to achieve a goal. With me, you will smoothly move from a beginner to more advanced. I create a low stress and efficient learning environment. I enjoy working with children but also find it rewarding to work with motivated adults. I am looking forward to working with you. Valentina K. View Full Profile.

About Zhao Yang Hi! My name is Evgeniya Zhao Yang! You have a genuine interest in learning Mandarin or Russian, you would love to explore the language, to learn more about the culture, people, history You need a guide who will help you and step by step will go with you toward your goals, support you in your language learning journey.

Don't wonder around for too long, make a decision and go for your dream. About me I have five years of experience with one-on-one online teaching as well as teaching in a classroom setti ng. I have taught Mandarin Chinese to students aged 6 at a Chinese Language Specialty School in Moscow and to sophomore, junior students, adults I had a student who was 78 years old learning Chinese , I also have experience working with clients from diverse backgrounds within the business world Tech companies, fashion industry, Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine Center and more.

I am Russian and I teach Russian as well. I started teaching Russian 3 years ago, I absolutely enjoy the process of sharing my knowledge with students. Russian is such a beautiful language with a great history. I truly admire people who decided to learn Russian, I do my best to share my passion for the language with my clients. I believe that when you learn a new language, you see the world through that language. Learning a language is not only about the language, it involves human communication, a sharing of ideas, culture, travelling, history, arts, personal and professional development.

So my lessons always include a basic cultural section where I introduce culture and customs to the students or any other topic the learner interested in. I always use visual aids, such as software tools or videos and make students feel that learning a foreign language is fun and interesting. I am happy that my passion for learning foreign languages became my profession.

Are you looking for the most efficient, fast and effective way to learn Mandarin Chinese or Russian or improve your language skills and finally get the specific results you need? Trust, You are in the right place! How my service is different? Zhao Yang L. Los Angeles, CA. About Artem Hello dear students! My name is Artem and I have been playing violin since I was 4 years old and am a freelance musician, composer and pedagogue.

I am passionate about teaching because I believe education and willingness to learn is an extremely important factor for personal development and success. I was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, Russia and underwent intensive training in voice, violin, composition and piano. English is also taught as a second language for recent immigrants to English-speaking countries, which faces separate challenges because the students in one class may speak many different native languages.

The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language , but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.

English language teaching ELT is a widely used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. The learners of English language are of two main groups. The first group includes the learners learning English as their second language i. EFL , English as a foreign language, indicates the teaching of English in a non—English-speaking region.

Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language ; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while one works for an organization or business with an international focus.

EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status what linguistic theorist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries" ; it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately. Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The other broad grouping is the use of English within the English-speaking world. In what Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies and the Philippines , where English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by a majority of the population.

This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language see also Second language. TESL is the teaching of English as a second language.

In these countries TESOL teaching English to speakers of other languages is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK and Ireland, the term EAL English as an additional language is used, rather than ESOL, when talking about primary and secondary schools, in order to clarify that English is not the students' first language, but their second or third. Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. Supreme Court. ELL English Language Learner , used by United States governments and school systems, was created by James Crawford of the Institute for Language and Education Policy in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them.

Recently, some educators have shortened this to EL — English Learner. Typically, a student learns this sort of English to function in the new host country, e. The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program. It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens.

In practice, however, this is extremely rare. The term refers to the use of standard English by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, not all of the English teachers in the world would agree on just only a simply single term s. This is also the case in Canada as well as in Australia and New Zealand. Several models of "simplified English" have been suggested or developed for international communication, among them:.

Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English a contrastive analysis approach. A native speaker of Chinese , for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German , because German is more closely related to English than Chinese.

This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue also called first language, normally abbreviated L1 setting out to learn any other language called a target language , second language or L2. See also second language acquisition SLA for mixed evidence from linguistic research.

Can anyone recommend easy Russian books?

Language learners often produce errors of syntax , vocabulary , and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference".

However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, as they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make' not 'he make s'. Some students may have problems due to the incoherence in certain rules, some words for example could be a noun or a verb depending on the sentence structure.

For instance, in "I am suffering terribly", suffering is the verb, but in "My suffering is terrible", it is a noun. But both sentences expresses the same idea using the same words. Other students might have problems due to the prescribing and proscribing nature of rules in the language formulated by amateur grammarians rather than ascribing to the functional and descriptive nature of languages evidenced from distribution.

For example, a cleric, Robert Lowth introduced the rule to never end a sentence with a preposition, inspired from Latin grammar through his book "A Short Introduction to English Grammar". Like many alphabetic writing systems English also have incorporated the principle that graphemic units should correspond to the phonemic units, however, the fidelity to the principle is compromised, compared to an exemplar language like the Finnish language.

Cultural differences in communication styles and preferences are also significant. For example, a study among Chinese ESL students revealed that preference of not using tense marking on verb present in the morphology of their mother tongue made it difficult for them to express time related sentences in English. English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them.

For example:. Languages may also differ in syllable structure ; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it e.

Graded Russian Reader, Used

Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese , for example, broadly alternate consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan and Brazil often force vowels between the consonants e. Similarly, in most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s] , and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word e. Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners.

Usually these learners have had their first-language education interrupted. For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills, [17] [18] and these learners may avoid reading or writing. Learners who have not had extensive exposure to reading and writing in a second language, despite having acceptable spoken proficiency, may have difficulties with the reading and writing in their L2.

Joann Crandall [24] has pointed out that most teacher training programs for TESOL instructors do not include sufficient, in most cases "no", training for the instruction in literacy. This is a gap that many scholars feel needs to be addressed. Basic interpersonal communication skills BICS are language skills needed in social situations. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years. Cognitive academic language proficiency CALP refers to the language associated with formal content material and academic learning.

These skills usually take from five to seven years to develop. According to some English professionals, reading for pleasure is an important component in the teaching of both native and foreign languages: [25]. As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language. There is also debate about "meaning-focused" learning and "correction-focused" learning. Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important.

However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important. Language has a very significant role in our lives. It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other.

Second Russian Reader: Bilingual for Speakers of English by Vadim Zubakhin

The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests. However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships. In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. Although many non-English speakers tend to practice English classes in their countries before they migrate to any anglophone country to make it easier for them to interact with the people, many of them still struggle when they experience the reality of communicating with a real anglophone.

Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible. Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues. The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes.

There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect. However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive. Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike.

Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found. In today's developed world , a computer is one of a number of systems which help learners to improve their language. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible. Computers can provide help to the ESL learners in many different ways such as teaching students to learn a new language. The computer can be used to test students about the language they already learn.

It can assist them in practicing certain tasks. The computer permits students to communicate easily with other students in different places. For instance, blogs can allow English learners to voice their opinions, sharpen their writing skills and build their confidence. However, some who are introverted may not feel comfortable sharing their ideas on the blog.

Class wikis can be used to promote collaborative learning through sharing and co-constructing knowledge. The learning ability of language learners can be more reliable with the influence of a dictionary. Learners tend to carry or are required to have a dictionary which allows them to learn independently and become more responsible for their own work. In these modern days, education has upgraded its methods of teaching and learning with dictionaries where digital materials are being applied as tools.

Most of them contain native-language equivalents and explanations, as well as definitions and example sentences in English. They can speak the English word to the learner, and they are easy to carry around. However, they are expensive and easy to lose, so students are often instructed to put their names on them. Teaching English therefore involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for their purposes, but also exposure to regional forms and cultural styles so that the student will be able to discern meaning even when the words, grammar, or pronunciation are different from the form of English they are being taught to speak.

Some professionals in the field have recommended incorporating information about non-standard forms of English in ESL programs. For example, in advocating for classroom-based instruction in African-American English also known as Ebonics , linguist Richard McDorman has argued, "Simply put, the ESL syllabus must break free of the longstanding intellectual imperiousness of the standard to embrace instruction that encompasses the many "Englishes" that learners will encounter and thereby achieve the culturally responsive pedagogy so often advocated by leaders in the field.

ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college level academic literacy. Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers.

The National Center for Education Statistics NCES in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities.

ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. Most foreign correspondents, like expatriates in general, place their children in international schools. Yet it seemed to us like an inspiring idea. After all, children supposedly pick up language quickly. So what if mine did not speak a word of Russian and could not find Russia on a map. They were clever and resilient.

They would adapt, become fluent and penetrate Russia — land of Dostoyevsky and Tchaikovsky, the Bolshoi Ballet and the Hermitage Museum — in ways all but impossible for foreigners. But the fantasy of creating bilingual prodigies immediately collided with reality. My children — Danya fifth grade , Arden third grade and Emmett kindergarten — were among the first foreigners to attend Novaya Gumanitarnaya Shkola, the New Humanitarian School.

All instruction was in Russian. No translators, no hand-holding. And so on that morning, as on so many days that autumn of , I feared that I was subjecting them to a cross-cultural experiment that would scar them forever. We had decided together on a Russian school, but it would become a source of tension between us. Our children were miserable, which caused us to doubt moving abroad — and to sometimes turn on each other.

I wanted to give the school more time and not demand more from the teachers.


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Julie was alarmed and thought that we had to do something. But Julie was frustrated by our options, short of pulling them out. At one point, after a lengthy discussion with several of the teachers, she walked out of the school nearly in tears. She was studying Russian, but she realized that she had missed much of what had been said.

How can you help your children when you can barely communicate with their teachers? Julie and I talked. I wondered whether it might be better if I went to the school and persuaded Arden to stay until the end of the day, if only in a quiet room, reading a book in English.


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  • Julie wanted her picked up, reasoning that it would be smarter to start fresh tomorrow. When I found her at school, she brightened. It was as if she were being rescued. I held her hand as we walked to the metro, and I told her that I recognized that what she was doing was hard. I gently added that it would be nice if this were the last time that she left school early because she was upset.

    When we started searching for schools, we assumed that a large public one in Moscow would be too daunting. Julie stumbled upon the Web site of New Humanitarian, a private school with or so pupils and small classes. It promised an enlightened and innovative interpretation of the classic Soviet education — all the rigor, without the suffocating conformity. Moscow progressives! Children older than 9 are regularly rated, based on test scores.

    Student rankings are posted on a central wall for all to gawk at, like the latest sports stats. In those first months, our kids found themselves bewildered and isolated. Danya was a typical oldest child, a coper who rarely lost control. At night, though, she had insomnia. In class, she braced herself for that moment when she was asked for homework.

    She sometimes did not know whether it had been assigned. During Russian grammar, the words on the blackboard looked like hieroglyphics. This is going to take time. We had assured her that children grasp language effortlessly, and there she was, the dumb foreigner.

    Arden was resisting getting out of bed in the morning, hugging her blanket in her room, where we had painted the walls to resemble green hills and blue skies. At recess, while others played vyshibaly , a Russian version of dodgeball, she passed the time walking back and forth on the curb, all alone, as if on a balance beam.

    Back at P. At New Humanitarian, she could barely talk to them. But one morning, he did so poorly on a minor exercise, involving drawing lines on graph paper, that he refused to hand it in. One night, he complained that he was not getting called on in class and knew why. I tried not to laugh. Though I could have used a good laugh. I convinced myself that what they were doing was no different from what millions of immigrants in the United States do all the time.

    Yet my unease stemmed from more than the school. When we arrived in Russia, the country was still suffering through the aftermath of the humiliating Soviet collapse in Vladimir Putin, a former K. Many Russians — fed up with post-Soviet disorder — applauded him. With oil prices soaring, the economy, based on natural resources, was riding high. In Moscow, newly prosperous Russians embraced a breathtaking materialism, making up for Soviet deprivation.

    They sped down Tverskaya Street in Lexus S. Moscow has 10 million people, and most are not wealthy. But after a few months, I remember thinking, Was this a society that I wanted to embed my kids in? We were met by a man with a shock of steel-wool hair and teeth whose color and arrangement suggested decades of Soviet dentistry and heavy smoking. We had just left Brooklyn and were spending our first year in Russia in St. The kids were at a private school in St. Petersburg that had a program for foreigners who wanted to learn Russian. Their language skills were rudimentary.

    At the school in Moscow, Bogin spent 45 minutes with each of the three, speaking to them in English. He gave Danya an algebra problem that was clearly too hard for her. He constructed the outline of a fish with toothpicks and asked Arden to make the fish face in the opposite direction by moving only a few pieces.

    He had Emmett take apart and rebuild a house made of blocks. He seemed to care about the way they thought, not what they knew. The children found him bizarre. But Bogin was giving us a taste of his methods. Bogin, who is in his 50s, would be nearly six feet tall if he had better posture, but he always seems to lean forward, drawn to something else as he prowls the school. His eyes have the impish gleam of a man cooking up a brainteaser for the next person he encounters.

    But more on that later. When Bogin was growing up in the Soviet era, the party used schools to mold loyal Communists. Teachers wove propaganda through the lessons and enforced memorization like drill sergeants. Bogin detested it. Just as political dissidents fought the Soviet regime, so, too, did others oppose the educational system.

    Bogin was one of them.